Notes for Chapter 19:
Changing the Oceans by Changing the Atmosphere

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Case History: Beyond Global Warming

         Featured Organisms:
                (fictional mammals endemic to the
                    "Hi-I-Ay" Archipelago, invented
                    by zoologist, Dr. Harald Stümpke)
                        More Links: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8
           Whale-sized snorkle-breathing animals
                (fictional future animals - invented by
              Dougal Dixon in: )
                                                      Available at

RQ 19.1: The fictional snorkle-breathing whale-size
    plankton feeder living some 50 million years in
    the future, as invented by Dougal Dixon, is
    descendent of what type of animal living in today's

I. The Effect of Global Warming on the World Oceans
        terms: greenhouse gases, greenhouse effect
                    More Links: 1 - 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 - 7 - 8 - 9 - 10


            Send President Bush a message about Global Warming

    a) The Magnitude of Global Warming

RQ 19.2: If CO2 is a rare gas in the atmosphere (i.e., compared
    with O2, for example, or compared with its concentration on
    Venus), then why is the documented increase in its
    concentration reason for concern? How much has its
    concentration increased since pre-industrial (before 1850)

    b) Effects of Global Warming on Marine Communities

RQ 19.3: Why are tropical marine communities thought to
    be especially vulnerable to damage by warming waters?

    c) Rising Sea Level

    d) The Worrisome Possibility of Positive Feedback
        terms: positive feedback

RQ 19.4: Briefly describe how positive feedback might operate
    in the ocean's response to global warming and why this
    possibility is considered worrisome. Bring the example of
    North Pacific vs. Tropical Pacific annual exchange of CO2
    into the comparison (see Fig. 19.5).

    e) An Iron Fix for the Southern Ocean?

RQ 19.5: One idea to slow global warming is to "seed" the
    Southern Ocean with a form of iron that could be used
    by phytoplankton. Why is this strategy probably doomed
    to provide only limited help, at best, even if it were

    f) Stopping the Greenhouse Effect

II. The Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone
        terms: ultraviolet-B (UV-B), ultraviolet-A (UV-A)

    a) Effects of Human Activities on Ozone
        terms: stratosphere

    b) Ultraviolet-B at Ground Level

    c) UV-B Effects on Marine Organisms

RQ 19.6: Briefly describe a specific example of a scientific
    demonstration that UV-B can be detrimental to the
    growth or life of marine organisms. Also describe
    evidence that some marine organisms are better able
    to cope with UV-B than others.

    d) Possible Effects of Increased Ultraviolet Radiation
            on Marine Communities
        terms: photoenzymatic repair

    e) Confronting the Ozone Challenge
        terms: Montreal Protocol

RQ 19.7: How thick is the Earth's normal ozone layer
        in the stratosphere, and why are human-made
        chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) more of a
        threat to it than are natural sources of chlorine
        (Cl), such as Cl discharged from volcanos?
        What danger might a further expansion of a
        seasonal hole in the ozone layer near Antarctica
        pose for marine organisms in the Southern Ocean?
        How might this problem be relatively easy to
        prevent, even if changes are not expected
        to be immediate?

III. Effects of DMS on Clouds and Climate
        terms: cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)

RQ 19.8: How might the ocean's natural release of
        dimethyl sulfide (DMS) moderate the impact
        of global warming due to expanding CO2 levels?

The Author's Last Word: Saving the Oceans-
            and Humanity (pp. 457-458)

RQ 19.9: According to David Milne, what is the
       only solution for the long-term health
        of the oceans and the rest of the planet?

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This page created 5/11/01 © D.J. Eernisse, Last Modified 5/14/01