Review Questions for Biology 404

HOL Ch. 22: Evolving Toward Humans

Review Questions

1. Using the material in Ch. 22 and the handout on human evolution distributed in class, compare and contrast the following in terms of geological age, body size, brain size, locomotion, use of tools, and (if obvious) the monophyly (or paraphyly) of the taxon: 1) Australopithecus vs. Homo; 2) A. afarensis vs. A. africanus; 3) A. robustus vs. A. africanus; 4) A. africanus vs. H. habilis; 5) H. habilis vs. H. erectus; 6) H. erectus vs. H. sapiens; 7) neanderthals vs. "modern" humans.

2. What is the significance of the shape of the pelvic canal in comparison of a modern woman and "Lucy" (Australopithecus afarensis).

3. How did Oldowan and Acheulean tools and tool use differ? How early does each appear associated with hominid fossils and which "species" used each?

4. Contrast the leading "Out of Africa" hypothesis (p. 364) with the alternative (older) view that is usually referred to as the "Multi-regional" hypothesis (referred to in book as "widespread Homo erectus" view). Why is the difference between these hypotheses so important to interpretation of human origins and genetic diversity?

5. What is the current opinion about whether Neanderthals might have interbred with Homo sapiens? What specific morphological differences are there between Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons (H. sapiens)? Where and when might have these two had opportunity to interbreed? Contrast their culture and tool making.

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