1. Contrast the notions of ecological replacement and displacement. As you read the chapter, try to tally at least a couple examples of each, according to the interpretation offered by Dr. Cowen.
2. The "Survey of Mammalian Evolution" is rather overwhelming in its whirlwind summary of mammalian evolution during the Cenozoic. Try to glean the following information from this section: a) What are the general climatic trends from the Paleocene to the Miocene Epochs?; b) When did most modern groups of mammals appear?; c) What are some groups of mammals that became important large herbivores?; and d) What is the geographic history of horses?
3. What is a guild? Can you give a few examples of guilds? Can you name a Cenozoic mammal and a Mesozoic dinosaur that occupied approximately the same guild?
4. What is the history of the modern group, Carnivora? When did it diversify, and what occupied this guild earlier? What is its sister taxon?
5. Molecular studies have revealed a very different pattern of mammalian relationships from conventional taxonomic groupings. Characterize the most important changes and explain how the new grouping correlate with geography.
6. When did savanna faunas first exist? What vegetation is important in savannas and why is it important? How do savanna grazers specialize in their feeding ecology? Contrast North American savannas at their peak of diversity with today's African savannas, in terms of the main groups that occupy the major guilds. (This will be covered in lecture.)
7. Give examples of perissodactyls and artiodactyls (see pp. 242-243 and later in chapter), and be able to name a key feature that distinguishes them. What is their relative species diversity today, and how is this different from earlier in the Cenozoic? (This will be covered in lecture.)
8. What are the Hipparion and Equus Events? Describe some basic trends in horse evolution. Contrast the old "linear" view of horse evolution with the more current "bushy" view.
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