1. What is a GCM and how useful is one likely to be for reconstruction Paleozoic climates? What alternative approaches does a paleontologist have?
2. How have oxygen isotope curves been used in paleoclimatology?
3. What is the albedo effect? What is the greenhouse effect?
4. Describe the present climate in terms of the general pattern of climate over the last 500 million years.
5. What are Milankovitch cycles, and why were they likely related to ice coverage fluctuations since 2.5 Ma? What is the Earth's present state, and when were the most recent peaks of maximum and minimum ice coverage?
6. What are factors that first contributed to the freezing over of the Arctic?
7. How and why did connections between continents change when coverage by ice sheets was at its maximum?
8. What is the Quaternary Period? When did the largest extinction events occur during the Quaternary? What is thought to be the major cause(s) of these extinctions?
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