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Phylogeny Part 1 (Review): CLADOGRAM CONCEPTS AND TERMS:
Cladogram Terminology: Start with some basic definitions of terms such as node and branch.
Sister Taxa: Learn what a sister taxon is and why recognizing them will help you with all of the following steps.
Cladogram Styles: Examples of the same cladogram drawn in different styles and orientation.
Rotate at a Node: Are the two cladograms identical, merely rotated at nodes, or are they different topologies?
Polytomies: Are they "hard" or "soft" and how do they relate to strict consensus estimates?

Using Cladograms

Phylogeny Part 2: Using Cladograms

Welcome to the online Cladogram Exercise 2 Web site. This online assignment will introduce you to how phylogeneticists come up with their best supported cladograms and how they use them to interpret patterns and processes of evolution. The links immediately above are provided for your review and will bring you back to Cladogram Exercise Part 1. Use the browser's "Back" button to return here. Your feedback is valuable and encouraged.

Read the instructions below and then click on the Cladograms Summarize Evolution link to start the Phylogeny Part 2 Exercise. There may be one or more additional phylogeny exercises in coming weeks that will focus on parts 3-7. Note that no scantron is needed for Part 2.

2. Cladograms Summarize Evolution: A cladogram can be used as a roadmap to the evolutionary history of a group.

Parts 3-7 Under Construction

3. Data for Cladograms: Introduction to how observations of similarity are compiled in the form of a character matrix.
4. T
ypes of Data: Emphasizing discrete (not continuous) character states; exploring morphological and molecular data sets.
5. S
pecial Similarity: Distinguishing types of similarity - the contrasting notions of synapomorphy and homoplasy.
6. P
arsimony Criterion: How one or more trees is supported as the "best" tree for a certain data set.
7. I
nterpreting Character Evolution: Interpreting the pattern of character evolution depends on which phylogeny is supported.

How to turn in Part 2 of this Web assignment.

  1. Use a simple numbered list numbers corresponding to the cladogram questions (CQ) as numbered, starting with CQ1 here.
  2. Unlike Part 1, the answers here will be fill-in-the-blank or short answer.
  3. You must turn in a hard copy version of this assignment in class; please remember to put your name on it.
  4. I will base the date turned in on when I receive the hard copy; the due date is no later than the posted due date, at the beginning of class.
  5. Late assignments will only be accepted for full credit if you can document a valid excuse.
  6. Late assignments, if unexcused, will still receive half credit, so late is better than not turning in the assignment.
  7. Please feel free to work together with your classmates but every student needs to turn in their assignment separately.
  8. This assignment is worth 14 points total (2 points per question, CQ1-CQ6, plus 2 points for responding with feedback after you answer the questions about what you liked or found confusing about this assignment, or how it compared to the first one).
  9. E-mail Prof. Eernisse at deernisse at fullerton dot edu if you find problems with these instructions (remember to include your name and email address).

Feedback on particular questions that confused you are welcome!
Email feedback to deernisse at fullerton dot edu

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