Chapter 14 – Ecology of Shallow Marine Environments



Review Questions


Compare the following habitats with respect to 1) physical characteristics; 2) typical communities; 3) amount of productivity; 4) source of productivity; 5) relative degree of disturbance; 6) long-term fluctuations


Rocky intertidal

Kelp Forests

Cobble beaches

Sandy beaches

Muddy beaches

Salt marshes

Mangrove forests

Sea grass communities


Coral reefs


Review Questions for Chapter 14


Give two reasons why shallow water depths are more likely to be productive than deeper water depths (see Fig. 14.1).


Why doesn’t wind tend to directly cause upwelling of nutrients?


Why does disturbance increase species diversity? What is the stability-time hypothesis?


How did Connell distinguish between predation and competition alternative explanations for why some barnacles were most common in sub-optimal habitats?


Give an example of a community characterized by alternative stable states.


Contrast northern and southern hemisphere rocky subtidal kelp forests.


Why are sea otters considered keystone species?


Contrast sediment habitats: cobbles, sand, and mud.


What are some typical characteristics of interstitial fauna?


Why does the interstitial fauna produce more biomass each year than the macrofauna, even though the macrofauna typically outweighs the interstitial fauna?